Smart city services like smart water management, clever energy, smart mobility and smart buildings are based on a central system. A web of sensors that are spread out throughout the city feed data to this central system or main nerve center by noticing activities in the physical environment. At the nerve center the data is processed and stored as meaningful information. This details is shared across different departments of the city government for much better coordination and making data-driven decisions.This sounds quite simple to implement, doesn’t it? Practically it is not easy. Why?Integrating numerous devices with different
innovations with the existing interaction facilities is among the most significant difficulties in developing a sustainable and effective wise city.The Info and Interaction Technology(ICT )architecture of
a clever city has 4 layers: noticing, communication, information, and service.Layer 1: Sensing The sensing layer has a diverse set of IoT nodes that are spread throughout an
urban area. These
nodes collect data about various activities in the physical environment. An IoT node is a package that comprises sensing units, microchips, power supply, and network components. IoT nodes are categorized into 2 different categories based on their operating conditions: Constrained node: These nodes operate in a low-power environment. They have low processing power and a low data-transfer rate.Unconstrained node: These nodes have no functional restraints in terms of power usage, processing rate,
proximity sensing unit node in a little office parking complex may be constrained, while the same proximity sensor node in huge parking complexes can be unconstrained.IoT nodes with the assistance of sensors, sense the activities in the environment around them and send information to data centers in the data layer.
In this data-exchange process, unconstrained nodes send out data in an eXtensible Markup Language (XML )format. However, this format is not compatible with constrained nodes, due to the fact that the overhead in describing the moved data makes it too long to parse. Additionally, the textual nature of an XML representation makes parsing difficult for CPU-limited nodes.As a solution to this issue, the Web Consortium(W3C) proposed the Efficient XML Interchange(EXI )format. This allows constrained nodes to natively support and generate messages by using an open-data format that is suitable with XML EXI has 2 kinds of encoding approaches: Schema less encoding: Information is encoded directly from the XML data and after that deciphered by any EXI processor without any anticipation about the data.Schema-informed encoding:
- Prior to the encoding or decoding process begins the XML schema is shared between 2 EXI processors. This shared schema allows EXI processor to assign numeric identifiers to the XML tags and build EXI grammar upon such coding.The schema-informed EXI processor can be perfectly incorporated with any constrained IoT node. This makes it possible for the constrained IoT node to not just check out an EXI format but also evolve into a multipurpose IoT node Layer 2: communications Every smart city system has a billion IoT nodes that are spread out across the city. These IoT nodes should be dealt with individually. This is made possible with IPv6, which provides a
128-bit address field. Nevertheless, the overheads that are presented by IPv6( in resolving the IoT nodes)are not suitable with constrained devices, and therefore 6LoWPAN(Low Power individual Area Network)was adopted.For smooth translation from IPv6 to 6LoWPAN and vice versa, a bridge
router is attached to the 6LoWPAN network. An IPv6 packet that is planned for a node in 6LoWPAN gets transformed into 6LoWPAN with the aid of a bridge router and vice versa.As a great deal of IoT nodes are spread across a city, the setup needs a robust communication innovation that covers a broad geographical area and can deal with a substantial quantity of information traffic. But a single communication innovation is not suitable with both constrained and unconstrained nodes. For the unconstrained IoT nodes we use the standard LAN, MALE, and WAN communication technologies such as WiFi, optic fiber, ethernet, broadband powerline communication, and mobile interaction technologies like UMTS and LTE. These interaction technologies have a higher reliability, high transfer rate, and low latency.On the other hand, the constrained nodes have transfer rates of less than 1 mbit/sec. The more trustworthy interaction technologies for constrained nodes are IEEE 802.11 Low Power, Bluetooth Low Energy, IEEE 802.15.4, Bluetooth, PLC, RFID, and NFC Layer 3: Data This is the intelligence layer of smart-city architecture. A mega clever city can work successfully
and efficiently only if the information about the city is arranged methodically. To do this a database of the following information is preserved individually: All the IoT nodes All the departments that manage the nodes (for instance, nodes connected to water management) Corresponding information for each department At the root of this layer are information servers that process data by using various statistical designs. These designs include the following: Predictive models: This model is a kind of data-mining innovation. It works by evaluating both past and
- current information and helps in
- forecasting the future.Descriptive designs: This design describes the relationship in between real-world occasions and the factors that are accountable for them.Decision designs: This design forecasts the result of a choice by developing the relationship in between elements of the decision and predicted results.These predictions help the city government
- to take proactive and data-driven decisions.This layer likewise consists of Business Resource Planning (ERP)systems that control the flow of data across different organizations under the city
- government.Layer 4: Service This layer acts as a cross-department operation center. Numerous city boards such as, water-supply board, power-supply board
- , pollution-control board, transportation department and so on. share info by utilizing web portals/mobile applications that are built on this layer.
This layer will not just serve federal government departments by sharing details but likewise the basic
public that has access to a subset of all the information. By utilizing this information the general public can develop services to improve the operations of the city.Many cities that are attempting to get rid of daily issues and sustain themselves have actually
found ideal solutions by embracing innovation. Smart city tasks in Barcelona, Tel Aviv, Amsterdam, Seoul, and Stockholm are some success stories.The post Exactly what are the 4 layers of data”architecture” needed for smart cities? appeared initially on ReadWrite.